The long-term effects of HIV is one of the hottest topics in the field, along with that of Pre-exposure prophylaxis,PrEP. But it might be something we will never know because we can not disassociate the effects of HIV from the ongoing "aging" process, the medications (and which types of meds), co-occurring conditions, like diabetes, and the interactions among all of them.
The latest study, featured on NPR (People Who Are HIV-Positive May Be Aging Faster Than Their Peers), tries to get at this question via our DNA -- an innovative technique reminiscent of an archeological exploration. The results hint at -- as most medical studies do, it could go as far as suggesting-- an accelerated aging effect. But this does not offer any new clues for prevention and treatment, yet. The conclusion actually applies to everybody: see your doctor, exercise, and eat well.